Sorted by Last Name of First Authors
HYPHEN: Hyperbolic Hawkes Attention For Text Streams
Shivam Agarwal, Ramit Sawhney, Sanchit Ahuja, Ritesh Singh Soun, Sudheer Chava
Analyzing the temporal sequence of texts from sources such as social media, news, and parliamentary debates is a challenging problem as it exhibits time-varying scale-free properties and fine-grained timing irregularities. We propose a Hyperbolic Hawkes Attention Network (HYPHEN), which learns a data-driven hyperbolic space and models irregular powerlaw excitations using a hyperbolic Hawkes process. Through quantitative and exploratory experiments over financial NLP, suicide ideation detection, and political debate analysis we demonstrate HYPHEN’s practical applicability for modeling online text sequences in a geometry agnostic manner.
Situated Dialogue Learning through Procedural Environment Generation
Prithviraj Ammanabrolu, Renee Jia, Mark Riedl
We teach goal-driven agents to interactively act and speak in situated environments by training on generated curriculums. Our agents operate in LIGHT (Urbanek et al. 2019)—a large-scale crowd-sourced fantasy text adventure game wherein an agent perceives and interacts with the world through textual natural language. Goals in this environment take the form of character-based quests, consisting of personas and motivations. We augment LIGHT by learning to procedurally generate additional novel textual worlds and quests to create a curriculum of steadily increasing difficulty for training agents to achieve such goals. In particular, we measure curriculum difficulty in terms of the rarity of the quest in the original training distribution—an easier environment is one that is more likely to have been found in the unaugmented dataset. An ablation study shows that this method of learning from the tail of a distribution results in significantly higher generalization abilities as measured by zero-shot performance on never-before-seen quests.
Is GPT-3 Text Indistinguishable from Human Text? Scarecrow: A Framework for Scrutinizing Machine Text
Yao Dou, Maxwell Forbes, Rik Koncel-Kedziorski, Noah Smith, Yejin Choi
Modern neural language models can produce remarkably fluent and grammatical text. So much, in fact, that recent work by Clark et al. (2021) has reported that conventional crowdsourcing can no longer reliably distinguish between machine-authored (GPT-3) and human-authored writing. As errors in machine generations become ever subtler and harder to spot, it poses a new challenge to the research community for robust machine text evaluation. We propose a new framework called Scarecrow for scrutinizing machine text via crowd annotation. To support the broad range of real machine errors that can be identified by laypeople, the ten error categories of Scarecrow—such as redundancy, commonsense errors, and incoherence—are identified through several rounds of crowd annotation experiments without a predefined ontology. We then use Scarecrow to collect over 41k error spans in human-written and machine-generated paragraphs of English language news text. We isolate factors for detailed analysis, including parameter count, training data, and various decoding-time configurations. Our approach successfully quantifies measurable gaps between human authored text and generations from models of several sizes, including fourteen configurations of GPT-3. In addition, our analysis unveils new insights, with detailed rationales provided by laypeople, e.g., that the commonsense capabilities have been improving with larger models while math capabilities have not, and that the choices of simple decoding hyperparameters can make remarkable differences on the perceived quality of machine text. We release our training material, annotation toolkit and dataset at https://yao-dou.github.io/scarecrow/.
EDDIE : End-to-End Humor Generation Model with Keyword Control (Student Workshop Paper)
Irene Lee, Anish Thite, Mohan Dodda, Xu Zeng, Diyi Yang
CAMERO: Consistency Regularized Ensemble of Perturbed Language Models with Weight Sharing
Chen Liang, Pengcheng He, Yelong Shen, Weizhu Chen, Tuo Zhao
Model ensemble is a popular approach to produce a low-variance and well-generalized model. However, it induces large memory and inference costs, which is often not affordable for real-world deployment. Existing work has resorted to sharing weights among models. However, when increasing the proportion of the shared weights, the resulting models tend to be similar, and the benefits of using model ensemble diminish. To retain ensemble benefits while maintaining a low memory cost, we propose a consistency-regularized ensemble learning approach based on perturbed models, named CAMERO. Specifically, we share the weights of bottom layers across all models and apply different perturbations to the hidden representations for different models, which can effectively promote the model diversity. Meanwhile, we apply a prediction consistency regularizer across the perturbed models to control the variance due to the model diversity. Our experiments using large language models demonstrate that CAMERO significantly improves the generalization performance of the ensemble model. Specifically, CAMERO outperforms the standard ensemble of 8 BERT-base models on the GLUE benchmark by $0.7$ with a significantly smaller model size ($114.2$M vs. $880.6$M).
EntSUM: A Data Set for Entity-Centric Extractive Summarization
Mounica Maddela, Mayank Kulkarni, Daniel Preotiuc-Pietro
Controllable summarization aims to provide summaries that take into account user-specified aspects and preferences to better assist them with their information need, as opposed to the standard summarization setup which build a single generic summary of a document. We introduce a human-annotated data set EntSUM for controllable summarization with a focus on named entities as the aspects to control. We conduct an extensive quantitative analysis to motivate the task of entity-centric summarization and show that existing methods for controllable summarization fail to generate entity-centric summaries. We propose extensions to state-of-the-art summarization approaches that achieve substantially better results on our data set. Our analysis and results show the challenging nature of this task and of the proposed data set.
Leveraging Expert Guided Adversarial Augmentation For Improving Generalization in Named Entity Recognition
Aaron Reich, Jiaao Chen, Aastha Agrawal, Yanzhe Zhang, Diyi Yang
Named Entity Recognition (NER) systems often demonstrate great performance on in-distribution data, but perform poorly on examples drawn from a shifted distribution. One way to evaluate the generalization ability of NER models is to use adversarial examples, on which the specific variations associated with named entities are rarely considered. To this end, we propose leveraging expert-guided heuristics to change the entity tokens and their surrounding contexts thereby altering their entity types as adversarial attacks. Using expert-guided heuristics, we augmented the CoNLL 2003 test set and manually annotated it to construct a high-quality challenging set. We found that state-of-the-art NER systems trained on CoNLL 2003 training data drop performance dramatically on our challenging set. By training on adversarial augmented training examples and using mixup for regularization, we were able to significantly improve the performance on the challenging set as well as improve out-of-domain generalization which we evaluated by using OntoNotes data. We have publicly released our dataset and code at https://github.com/GT-SALT/Guided-Adversarial-Augmentation.
DMix: Adaptive Distance-aware Interpolative Mixup
Ramit Sawhney, Megh Thakkar, Shrey Pandit, Ritesh Singh Soun, Di Jin, Diyi Yang, Lucie Flek
Interpolation-based regularisation methods such as Mixup, which generate virtual training samples, have proven to be effective for various tasks and modalities. We extend Mixup and propose DMix, an adaptive distance-aware interpolative Mixup that selects samples based on their diversity in the embedding space. DMix leverages the hyperbolic space as a similarity measure among input samples for a richer encoded representation. DMix achieves state-of-the-art results on sentence classification over existing data augmentation methods on $8$ benchmark datasets across English, Arabic, Turkish, and Hindi languages while achieving benchmark F1 scores in $3$ times less number of iterations. We probe the effectiveness of DMix in conjunction with various similarity measures and qualitatively analyze the different components. DMix being generalizable, can be applied to various tasks, models and modalities.
Fantastic Questions and Where to Find Them: FairytaleQA — An Authentic Dataset for Narrative Comprehension
Ying Xu, Dakuo Wang, Mo Yu, Daniel Ritchie, Bingsheng Yao, Tongshuang Wu, Zheng Zhang, Toby Jia-Jun Li, Nora Bradford, Branda Sun, Tran Bao Hoang, Yisi Sang, Yufang Hou, Xiaojuan Ma, Diyi Yang, Nanyun Peng, Zhou Yu, Mark Warschauer
Question answering (QA) is a fundamental means to facilitate assessment and training of narrative comprehension skills for both machines and young children, yet there is scarcity of high-quality QA datasets carefully designed to serve this purpose. In particular, existing datasets rarely distinguish fine-grained reading skills, such as the understanding of varying narrative elements. Drawing on the reading education research, we introduce FairytaleQA, a dataset focusing on narrative comprehension of kindergarten to eighth-grade students. Generated by educational experts based on an evidence-based theoretical framework, FairytaleQA consists of 10,580 explicit and implicit questions derived from 278 children-friendly stories, covering seven types of narrative elements or relations. Our dataset is valuable in two folds: First, we ran existing QA models on our dataset and confirmed that this annotation helps assess models’ fine-grained learning skills. Second, the dataset supports question generation (QG) task in the education domain. Through benchmarking with QG models, we show that the QG model trained on FairytaleQA is capable of asking high-quality and more diverse questions.
Focus on the Action: Learning to Highlight and Summarize Jointly for Email To-Do Items Summarization
Kexun Zhang, Jiaao Chen, Diyi Yang
Automatic email to-do item generation is the task of generating to-do items from a given email to help people overview emails and schedule daily work. Different from prior research on email summarization, to-do item generation focuses on generating action mentions to provide more structured summaries of email text. Prior work either requires large amount of annotation for key sentences with potential actions or fails to pay attention to nuanced actions from these unstructured emails, and thus often lead to unfaithful summaries. To fill these gaps, we propose a simple and effective learning to highlight and summarize framework (LHS) to learn to identify the most salient text and actions, and incorporate these structured representations to generate more faithful to-do items. Experiments show that our LHS model outperforms the baselines and achieves the state-of-the-art performance in terms of both quantitative evaluation and human judgement. We also discussed specific challenges that current models faced with email to-do summarization.
Prompt-Based Rule Discovery and Boosting for Interactive Weakly-Supervised Learning
Rongzhi Zhang, Yue Yu, Pranav Shetty, Le Song, Chao Zhang
Weakly-supervised learning (WSL) has shown promising results in addressing label scarcity on many NLP tasks, but manually designing a comprehensive, high-quality labeling rule set is tedious and difficult. We study interactive weakly-supervised learning—the problem of iteratively and automatically discovering novel labeling rules from data to improve the WSL model. Our proposed model, named PRBoost, achieves this goal via iterative prompt-based rule discovery and model boosting. It uses boosting to identify large-error instances and discovers candidate rules from them by prompting pre-trained LMs with rule templates. The candidate rules are judged by human experts, and the accepted rules are used to generate complementary weak labels and strengthen the current model. Experiments on four tasks show PRBoost outperforms state-of-the-art WSL baselines up to $7.1\%$, and bridges the gaps with fully supervised models.
Continual Sequence Generation with Adaptive Compositional Modules
Yanzhe Zhang, Xuezhi Wang, Diyi Yang
Continual learning is essential for real-world deployment when there is a need to quickly adapt the model to new tasks without forgetting knowledge of old tasks. Existing work on continual sequence generation either always reuses existing parameters to learn new tasks, which is vulnerable to catastrophic forgetting on dissimilar tasks, or blindly adds new parameters for every new task, which could prevent knowledge sharing between similar tasks. To get the best of both worlds, in this work, we propose continual sequence generation with adaptive compositional modules to adaptively add modules in transformer architectures and compose both old and new modules for new tasks. We also incorporate pseudo experience replay to facilitate knowledge transfer in those shared modules. Experiment results on various sequences of generation tasks show that our framework can adaptively add modules or reuse modules based on task similarity, outperforming state-of-the-art baselines in terms of both performance and parameter efficiency. We make our code public at https://github.com/GT-SALT/Adaptive-Compositional-Modules.
Inducing Positive Perspectives with Text Reframing
Caleb Ziems, Minzhi Li, Anthony Zhang, Diyi Yang
Sentiment transfer is one popular example of a text style transfer task, where the goal is to reverse the sentiment polarity of a text. With a sentiment reversal comes also a reversal in meaning. We introduce a different but related task called positive reframing in which we neutralize a negative point of view and generate a more positive perspective for the author without contradicting the original meaning. Our insistence on meaning preservation makes positive reframing a challenging and semantically rich task. To facilitate rapid progress, we introduce a large-scale benchmark, Positive Psychology Frames, with 8,349 sentence pairs and 12,755 structured annotations to explain positive reframing in terms of six theoretically-motivated reframing strategies. Then we evaluate a set of state-of-the-art text style transfer models, and conclude by discussing key challenges and directions for future work.
The Moral Integrity Corpus: A Benchmark for Ethical Dialogue Systems
Caleb Ziems, Jane A. Yu, Yi-Chia Wang, Alon Y. Halevy, Diyi Yang
Conversational agents have come increasingly closer to human competence in open-domain dialogue settings; however, such models can reflect insensitive, hurtful, or entirely incoherent viewpoints that erode a user’s trust in the moral integrity of the system. Moral deviations are difficult to mitigate because moral judgments are not universal, and there may be multiple competing judgments that apply to a situation simultaneously. In this work, we introduce a new resource, not to authoritatively resolve moral ambiguities, but instead to facilitate systematic understanding of the intuitions, values and moral judgments reflected in the utterances of dialogue systems. The Moral Integrity Corpus, MIC, is such a resource, which captures the moral assumptions of 38k prompt-reply pairs, using 99k distinct Rules of Thumb (RoTs). Each RoT reflects a particular moral conviction that can explain why a chatbot’s reply may appear acceptable or problematic. We further organize RoTs with a set of 9 moral and social attributes and benchmark performance for attribute classification. Most importantly, we show that current neural language models can automatically generate new RoTs that reasonably describe previously unseen interactions, but they still struggle with certain scenarios. Our findings suggest that MIC will be a useful resource for understanding and language models’ implicit moral assumptions and flexibly benchmarking the integrity of conversational agents. To download the data, see https://github.com/GT-SALT/mic
VALUE: Understanding Dialect Disparity in NLU
Caleb Ziems, Jiaao Chen, Camille Harris, Jessica Anderson, Diyi Yang
English Natural Language Understanding (NLU) systems have achieved great performances and even outperformed humans on benchmarks like GLUE and SuperGLUE. However, these benchmarks contain only textbook Standard American English (SAE). Other dialects have been largely overlooked in the NLP community. This leads to biased and inequitable NLU systems that serve only a sub-population of speakers. To understand disparities in current models and to facilitate more dialect-competent NLU systems, we introduce the VernAcular Language Understanding Evaluation (VALUE) benchmark, a challenging variant of GLUE that we created with a set of lexical and morphosyntactic transformation rules. In this initial release (V.1), we construct rules for 11 features of African American Vernacular English (AAVE), and we recruit fluent AAVE speakers to validate each feature transformation via linguistic acceptability judgments in a participatory design manner. Experiments show that these new dialectal features can lead to a drop in model performance.